Respectfully comment on their points regarding this purpose, stating what you agree with and why, or by adding further relevant information or examples to support their point. 5 sentences or more.
Discuss why your chosen assessment purpose is important for young children and what some of the detriments or problems are, if any. Support this portion of your post with the scholarly resource you located in the step above.
Many years ago students were held accountable of their standardized test scores. It wasnâ€™t until the accountability act, No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), was created that teachers and schools were held accountable for studentâ€™s test scores. â€œNCLB holds schools and teachers accountable for student performanceâ€ (Deville & Chalhoub-Deville, 2011, page 308). The purpose of holding teachers accountable for studentâ€™s test results is to insure young children are being taught the standardized curriculum they are being tested on. The NCLB act â€œmandates that states set goals and trajectories whereby all students attain â€˜proficiencyâ€™ in English language arts/reading and mathematicsâ€ (Deville & Chalhoub-Deville, 2011, page 308). The problem with this is that not all children learn at the same rate â€“ which is where assessments become necessary and different testing services need to be provided.
Identify how you know where to begin when using assessments with children. Provide specific examples.
Howard and Aiken (2015) suggest, â€œin order to find the path’s best starting point, it is necessary to carefully measure the behavior or traits under considerationâ€ (Section 1.3). Identifying where to begin when using assessments with children comes from knowing where the childâ€™s happy medium lies. You donâ€™t want to cause frustration by giving too difficult assessment because they will give up. You donâ€™t want to give a child too less of a challenge either or they will lose interest. â€œSo the beginning point should be somewhere between 70% and 90% accuracy, where a child is growing while experiencing a good deal of encouraging successâ€ (Howard & Aiken, 2015, Section 1.3). For instance, you wouldnâ€™t give a 4 year old a reading comprehension test because they are only starting to learn to identify letters, sounds, and meaning. But perhaps, after verbally reading a story to a 4 year old child you can ask questions about the story to assess their level of comprehension..
Analyze the importance of goal setting. What are the implications for improper goal-setting?
Goal setting in everyday tasks is important to know when something has been achieved. Performing assessments is no different. The purpose of performing assessments is to improve instruction. â€œOnce educators know where to begin, they can plot a path or make a planâ€ (Howard & Aiken, 2015, Section 1.3). Therefore, setting goals allows the assessor to create appropriate assessments which will lead to an end goal, or achievement. Without a goal, it is unknown when achievement targets have been hit. Improper goal setting, along the lines of improper initial assessment, may lead to too challenging or too easy for a child which will produce inaccurate results.
Explain what the next steps are if an assessment does not yield comprehensive results.
If an assessment does not yield comprehensive results, a different path must be chosen. â€œChildren develop and learn at different rates; some require more or different intervention than othersâ€ (Howard & Aiken, 2015, Section 1.3). For starters, as mentioned in the next prompt, using multiple measures of assessment to obtain the most accurate results is important if an assessment does not yield comprehensive results. Secondly, a child may need to be referred to a special educational service for children with disabilities.
Defend why using multiple measures of assessment is considered a best practice. Include at least two reasons and support your rationale with the text and at least one scholarly resource.
Using multiple measures of assessment is considered best practice because the validity and reliability of using only one assessment is weak. Howard and Aiken (2015) state, â€œNo single measure of a child is sufficient for important decision makingâ€ (Section 1.4). Because standardized tests only provide evidence of a studentâ€™s knowledge at that moment, rather than on a continual basis, scores may not be accurate. There may be personal factors affecting the results of such standardized test. For instance, Sieversen, Dino and Piovesan (2016) suggest that:
The time at which students take tests affects their performance. Specifically, we argue that time of day influences studentsâ€™ test performance because, over the course of a regular day, studentsâ€™ mental resources get taxed. Thus, as the day wears on, students become increasingly fatigued and consequently more likely to underperform on a standardized test (para. 3).
Therefore, â€œthe way to improve the accuracy and usefulness of evidence used to make decisions is to collect and evaluate multiple assessment sources, both summative and formativeâ€ (Howard & Aiken, 2015, Section 1.4).
Deville, C., & Chalhoub-Deville, M. (2011). Accountability-assessment under No Child Left Behind: Agenda, practice, and future. Language Testing, 28(3), 307-321. doi:10.1177/0265532211400876
Howard, V. F., & Aiken, E. (2015). Assessing learning and development in young children. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education
Sievertsen, H. H., Dino, F., & Piovesan, M. (2016, February 16). Cognitive fatigue influences studentsâ€™ performance on standardized tests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113, 2621-2624. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1516947113